On a hot summer day, the smell of pool water can bring back happy memories of carefree swimming. However, the smell often associated with swimming pools is not actually chlorine, but chloramines. In this blog, we will explore the chemistry behind pool smells, how chloramines form, and ways to manage chlorine levels for a safe and enjoyable swimming experience.
What Causes Pool Smells?
When chlorine disinfectants are added to pool water, they release hypochlorous acids and hypochlorite, collectively known as “free-available chlorine” (FAC). These chlorine compounds are crucial for destroying germs in the water and protecting swimmers. However, when FAC reacts with sweat, oils, and urine from swimmers, it forms chloramines.
Chloramines are formed through the reaction of hypochlorous acids and ammonia, which is present in sweat and urine. This reaction occurs when chloride ions replace hydrogen ions within ammonia, resulting in the formation of monochloramines, dichloramines, and trichloramines. While monochloramine is a disinfectant that can be added to water, dichloramines and trichloramines are undesirable and can cause irritation to the skin, eyes, and respiratory system.
Managing Chlorine Levels
The challenge for pool managers is to maintain an adequate level of available free chlorine to effectively destroy germs. As chloramines form, the amount of free chlorine available for disinfection decreases. Combination available chlorine (CAC) refers to the free chlorine that has been locked up in chloramines and cannot be released. To achieve optimal disinfection, CAC levels must be kept low.
Florida Pool Patio recommends maintaining FAC concentrations between 1.0 and 4.0 parts per million (ppm) for effective chlorine levels. FAC levels should never drop below 1 ppm, and CAC levels should not exceed 0.2 ppm. Pool managers can use test kits to measure FAC and total chlorine (TC) levels.
Reducing Pool Smells
A strong chlorine odor in the swimming pool is often associated with too much chlorine. Paradoxically, a strong smell may indicate that there is not enough chlorine in the pool. To eliminate chloramines, pool operators can use shock treatment or superchlorination. This involves adding extra chlorine to the pool to destroy ammonia, organic compounds, and other substances that contribute to chloramine formation. The FAC level in the pool should be ten times greater than the CAC for effective chloramine destruction.
Proper disinfection of pool water is essential for the health and safety of swimmers. Pool managers are responsible for adjusting water chemistry to reduce the risk of infection. Swimmers can also check for several indicators to determine if a pool is safe:
- Clear and Blue Water: The water in the pool should be clear and blue, allowing visibility of drains or painted stripes on the pool floor. Cloudy or colored water may indicate the presence of algae, making it unsafe to swim.
- Slimy Pool Walls: If the pool walls feel slimy, germs may be present on the surface. Swimmers should avoid swimming in pools with dirty walls to prevent infection.
- Chemical Odor: A strong chemical odor around the pool should be a concern. Pools with a strong chemical smell should be avoided until the water is properly treated.
It is important to shower before entering the swimming pool to maintain a clean environment. Showering helps remove substances like sweat and oil that can contribute to chloramine formation. Additionally, encouraging children to take regular bathroom breaks can help prevent accidents in the pool.
Remember, a well-managed pool should not have a strong odor. By understanding the chemistry behind pool smells and effectively managing chlorine levels, pool managers can provide a safe and enjoyable swimming experience for everyone.
Florida Pool Patio is a second-generation company that comprises of engineering professionals with a top-notch team. Our team has built a reputation for providing a positive experience and satisfied clientele with the latest technology. Our luxury pool builders in Golden Beach FL will not settle merely building pools and patios; we want to positively impact the environment and benefit our clients from our knowledge. From construction to maintenance to outstanding customer service, we will never settle for less than the best.